On the Road
Obviously, not all theatre takes place in New York City or regional theatres. Another major market for theatre is touring and “out of town” productions. The following section breaks down some of the ways in which theatre is presented on the road, both through presenting new works and touring of pre-established shows. Unlike the theatres we have looked at to this point, most theatres in this section are not producing houses (theatres that produce their own shows), but rather what is known as a road house. A road house (sometimes referred to as a receiving house) is a theatre does not produce its own repertoire, but instead presents touring productions.
New York and London theatre audiences and critics are incredibly savvy and have demanding expectations of theatrical performances. As such, it is often in the producers’ best interest to “work out the kinks” outside of the city before presenting the show on Broadway or the West End, especially with millions of dollars of the investors’ backing to consider. This is the purpose of the Tryout (sometimes called the out-of-town tryout), a staging of a play or musical in a venue outside of the New York or London market in order to identify and work through potential problem spots in the production before bringing it to Broadway or the West End. This assures the producers that the production will be in a better position to receive favorable reviews once it reaches its primary market, without having to present it before local press. It also gives a chance for the show to begin to develop a following and the widely sought after “buzz factor” that is so important in today’s social media-driven society. The Shubert Theatre in New Haven, Connecticut is an excellent example of a theatre that regularly presents tryouts. Historically, U.S. tryouts have been presented in major metropolitan areas such as Philadelphia, Boston, Los Angeles, or Seattle, though this is becoming less of a hard-and-fast rule of late. UK out of town tryouts often happen in Manchester.
Touring: The Broadway National Tour
These days, it is fairly common for a large percentage of Broadway productions to present a national tour following the close of the show, or even during the Broadway run if the show is particularly successful. The Broadway National Tour is a remounting of the original production featuring revised versions of the original Broadway designs and direction in order to fit into touring spaces. This tour travels to major cities across the country. If a production is particularly popular, there might be several different touring companies on the road, presenting in different parts of the country simultaneously. Typically, the tour follows a fast-paced schedule and presents for a short window in one city before heading onto the next. For popular shows, it is also common to see the company have a sit down, a longer or open-ended residency for an extended period of time. It is most often the case that the original creative team for a Broadway production are contractually granted a “right of first refusal” for any tours or subsequent productions of the show using the director or any of the original producers, so it is commonly the case that the designers for the Broadway National Tour are the original designers for the Broadway production. This leads to an interesting possibility of re-designing certain elements of the production to work for a tour while keeping the experience similar for touring audiences.
A major Broadway tour might use as many as 20 semi-trucks full of equipment. As each truck adds another level of costs, square footage of production elements becomes an important consideration. Since projection equipment can take up quite a bit less square footage in a truck than traditional scenery, some tours have made the move to replace certain scenic elements of the original design with projection, in order to get the original feel while not using as many trucks. This new approach allows tours going to smaller venues to have a much more authentic “Broadway feel” than older touring models. It also gives designers a chance to revisit their initial choices made on the Broadway show and utilize technology that might not have been available at the time of the original design. For instance, for the Broadway production of Dear Evan Hansen, projection designer Peter Nigrini created a design with a combination of projectors and LCD video monitors to create a world that essentially exists inside of the Internet. For the national tour, Nigrini used a newer variety of LCD displays than those on Broadway. By this point, the old screens had been used on the Broadway production for around two years. When the producer saw the noticeable difference in resolution by the newer gear on tour, she decided to upgrade the gear at the Music Box Theatre to match what was being used on tour. While this is something of a rarity, it is a good example of how the national tour and Broadway shows can be interconnected.
Touring: Bus and Truck
Smaller cities and venues may have touring productions that come to town, but for shorter periods of time than the national tour. These bus and truck tours, so-called because of the fact that actors would travel by bus, rather than by air, and the scenery and equipment arrive on a truck. These tours feature greatly reduced design elements in order to aid in a fast load-in and strike, accommodating smaller venues and tight schedules. In contrast to the national tour, which typically stays at one venue for a longer period of time and might even have a sit-down, the bus and truck tours are commonly in towns for a shorter period of time, like a weekend or two. In some instances, there might be a week split between two cities or even a “one night only” performance.
Professional Theatre in an Educational Environment
While we have covered many different aspects of professional theatre, there are also many theatre artists who regularly work in educational theatre, as well. When hearing the term educational theatre, many might assume that those involved are either students or educators, but there are actually a large number of designers and stagehands who work in academic environments. Many university theatre programs have or can gain access to gear like computers, software, and projectors, making university theatre programs some of the early adopters of projection design, outside of commercial theatre or larger regional theatres. When looking at the theatres attached to academic programs, there are a number of different models. Some theatre programs have a professional theatre on campus that serves as a training laboratory for students to work alongside professional theatre artists. Currently, there are 13 U.S. universities operating professional theatres associated with LORT. Often, these programs have a professional company in which the faculty are dual appointments with the university and the professional company. Students have the opportunity to work on LORT productions during their time at the university, and possibly work towards gaining their union membership along the way, as is often the case with acting students becoming Actors Equity Membership Candidates (EMC). Still other university programs have not-for-profit, professional theatres connected in some way to their theatre programs without operating under a LORT contract. Finally, a large number of theatre programs produce their own seasons in theatre spaces on campus as a co-curricular extension of their theoretical training. In all of these different models, faculty members serve in artistic roles themselves, as well as possibly mentoring students through the creative process. In addition to faculty and students, guest artists are frequently hired in to fill out the production roles needed for the season.
Thanks for checking out this short series on professional theatre structures in the U.S. I hope it’s been informative and useful! Make sure to like and follow for more posts like this one on entertainment design and technology.